Anaphylaxis is the response of the immunology of a person to an allergen of which he is allergic to. When a person is exposed to that allergen then the body basophils and mast cells releases histamine, tryptase and serotonin materials and also some other vasoactive materials.
Reactions of anaphylactoid are clinically impossible to differentiate from anaphylaxis, but they are mediated by the medicine or material straightaway. Anaphylaxis can be separated into two on the basis of pathophysiology, the one is true anaphylaxis and the other is pseudo-anaphylaxis.
All the three that is the treatment, symptoms, and the death risk are similar but the first one is caused because of degranulation of mast cells treated by immunoglobulin E and the other without IgE treatment. Drugs such as morphine, tubocurare, alcuronium and atracurium usually lead to direct discharge of small amounts of histamine.
Active anaphylaxis - It is a type which can be seen naturally. When an animal or person is exposed to specific allergens after two weeks then the active anaphylaxis will be traced on exposure to the similar allergen.
Biphasic Anaphylaxis – It is a type in which there is no additional exposure to allergens and the symptoms reoccur in 72 hours. The percentage of occurrence ranges from 1 to 20% of the cases. The reason behind it can be morphine, aspirin, radio-contrast and muscle relaxants.
Passive anaphylaxis – It is type in which the passive anaphylaxis is tempted in local animals which obtain serum transfer serum on experimental basis from animals who are allergic to some allergens.
Causes of Anaphylaxis
Some of the common causes of anaphylaxis are food, latex rubber and insect bites.
There are quite a number of food items that can prompt anaphylaxis. The common among them are peanut, tree nuts shellfish, fish, egg and milk. But the most severe conditions are generally because of ingestion of an allergen. It is generally because of a toxic reaction and not because of the immune system mechanism which takes place with “true” anaphylaxis.
When it comes to the symptoms and risk for complications for both conditions that is without treatment and with treatment then they are the same for the two kinds of reactions. There are also vaccinations that can cause “anaphylactoid” reactions. Anaphylaxis can be induced through the poison acquired from the sting or bite of insects like Hymenoptera or Hemiptera in vulnerable people. These types of immune mediators become reason behind many symptoms which also include allergic reactions ordinary symptoms like itching and swelling.
Prevention of anaphylaxis
For the allergies to insects like bees, hornets, fire ants etc. immunotherapy with hymenoptera venoms can be helpful. But the best and successful method of preventing anaphylaxis is the use of allergy injections so that the re-occurrence of the allergy from the sting can be prevented. If venom immunotherapy is done then the systemic interactions risk can be reduced to as low as 3%. A possible vaccine has been made to avoid anaphylaxis because of allergies of peanut and tree nuts.
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- pathophysiology of anaphylaxis
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- Pseudo anaphylaxis
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